Ocean floor facts

Use Advanced Search to search by activities, standards, and more. Like dry land, the ocean floor has various features including flat plains, sharp mountains, and rugged canyons Fig.

However, the lowest point in the world ocean is much deeper than the highest point on land. The ocean floor is continually being formed and destroyed. To understand the ocean floor and its diverse features, it is important to learn about the formation of the earth and its geological history. Principle 1: The earth has one big ocean with many features.

OLP 1b. To build an understanding of the shapes and features of the ocean, it is important to understand plate tectonics and the subduction and renewal of the oceanic crusts.

These concepts will be explored in this unit through the following activities and investigations:. Based on evidence that has been found at plate boundaries, make some hypotheses about the movement of those plates. Evaluate and interpret several lines of evidence for continental drift over geological time scales. Simulate the rock cycle using crayons to build an understanding of the processes that occur to create sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rock.

Ocean floor

Simulate taking sediment cores in the ocean to build an understanding of sediment layering and sediment core sampling. Principle 7: The ocean is largely unexplored. Ocean Literacy Fundamental Concept: New technologies, sensors and tools are expanding our ability to explore the ocean. Ocean scientists are relying more and more on satellites, drifters, buoys, subsea observatories and unmanned submersibles.

OLP 7d. In order to build an understanding that the seafloor and oceanic crust are one of largest and least explored features of the ocean and the earth, it is important to understand the history and challenges that have been faced by deep sea exploration.

This document may be freely reproduced and distributed for non-profit educational purposes. Skip to main content. Search form Search. Join The Community Request new password.About three-quarters of our planet's surface is covered with water and the deep basins of the ocean floor account for approximately nine-tenths of this water-covered area - that is, some two-thirds of the Earth's surface. The rest of the water-covered area comprises mainly shallow seas, the continental shelves and lakes.

The crests of the ridges rise to within 2 to 3km of the sea surface. New oceanic crust is created at the ridge crests by sea-floor spreading. The magma is lighter of lower density than the surrounding mantle and therefore rises into the relatively thin crustal layer.

The molten material may then slowly crystallize in the lower crust, or it may rise to the middle of the crust and solidify in fissures thereby forming dykes or it may be extruded as lava onto the ocean floor. As sea-floor spreading continues, newly-created crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge crest and gradually becomes cooler, thicker and denser, with the result that it subsides.

Thus the fact that the East Pacific Ocean Ridge is much wider than is the mid-ocean ridge in the Atlantic Ocean reflects the markedly faster rate of crust creation at the East Pacific Ridge. Moreover, because of the greater rate of formation, crust of the same age and, therefore, thickness is farther from the ridge crest in the Pacific Ocean than in the Atlantic.

So although the Pacific Ocean is much wider than the Atlantic, the oldest crust in the Pacific found near the Mariana Trench is about the same age approximately million years old as the oldest crust in the Atlantic which occurs near the eastern coast of the United States.

Not only is oceanic crust continually created at mid-ocean ridges, but it is also continually re-absorbed into the mantle at subduction zones, which are marked by deep ocean trenches.

The trenches around the edges of the eastern Pacific Ocean are shallower than are those of the western Pacific. Another major structural feature of deep ocean basins are large fractures in the sea bed.

ocean floor facts

These fractures cut across mid-ocean ridges, usually offsetting the ridge crests. The fractures on the slowly-spreading ridges of the Atlantic and Indian oceans tend to be closer together and to cause less offsetting than those of the faster-spreading Pacific ridges. Most of the remaining features of the ocean floor result from large outpourings of magma, which typically form submarine volcanoes. Some marine volcanoes also rise above the sea surface, forming volcanic islands.

The submergence of an oceanic volcano indicates that it was formed in relatively shallow water near an active ridge crest but has since been moved into deeper water as a result of movement of the plate on which it stands away from the active area called a "hot spot".

If this movement continues, it may give rise to a chain of volcanic islands, atolls and guyots stretching away from the hot spot - the Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts chain, for example. Submarine sediments are of two main types: those consisting of material washed from the land into the sea and those comprising the skeletal remains of marine plankton.

In the Pacific Ocean, where the marginal trenches trap land-derived sediments, the sedimentary covering on the ocean bed is less than about m thick, whereas in the Indian and Atlantic oceans it may exceed 1,m.

Ocean Floor.These 10 unbelievable ocean facts illustrate just how important these initiatives are. You might also like — Why our oceans and beaches need us now. According to the World Register of Marine Species there are nowaccepted species, but this is believed to be just a small proportion of the species that exist, with new marine life being discovered everyday.

When salt water and hydrogen sulfide combine, it becomes denser than the rest of the water around it, enabling it to form a lake or river that flows beneath the sea. Not only does a large part of the planet exist beneath the ocean, so does the United States — around 50 per cent, in fact.

With 25, islands lying within it, the Pacific Ocean has more islands than anywhere else on the planet. You teached me a lot so thank you soooooo much. To who ever is reading this I hope you have a lovely day and may god bless you xxx. This helped my project about the ocean, it was the best website I was on the whole time I did my project. About fact 10 — In the Baltic sea, between Sweden and Finland, are more than I have loved the ocean since i was 5. I have studied since i was 7. My dream is to be a marine biologist.

I want to dedicate my life to the sea and the animals. And in 50 years or so the oceans of Earth will be largely fished out and toxic, plastic polluted, liquid disaster areas. Such a shame we will never learn our lessons and realise we share the planet with so many other earthling — the fish and the land animals. Life before profit!! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The majority of life on Earth is aquatic.

You might also like — Why our oceans and beaches need us now 6. We still only know a fraction of the marine species in our oceans. Around 50 per cent of the US lies beneath the ocean. Be the first to sign up for our brand new newsletter, coming soon… Travel news, itineraries and inspiration delivered straight to your inbox. To who ever is reading this I hope you have a lovely day and may god bless you xxx Reply.

This helped me with a project so, Thank You. This helped my project about the ocean, it was the best website I was on the whole time I did my project Reply. It helped with my project a lot too. SAME Reply. This helped me with my ELA paper. Thank you so much!Deep Disposal The Challenger Deep is the deepest part of the ocean. It sits on a subduction zone, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Philippine plate. Some scientists argue that this makes the Challenger Deep the perfect place to dispose of toxic nuclear waste.

ocean floor facts

The material would be far from human habitation and would melt into the Earth's molten mantle at the subduction zone. An international agreement the London Convention currently makes this proposed method of nuclear waste disposal illegal.

Also called an accretionary prism. An adaptation is passed from generation to generation. Carbon dioxide is also the byproduct of burning fossil fuels. Gas molecules are in constant, random motion.

33 Mind-Blowing Facts About the Earth's Oceans

Usually rivers enter another body of water at their mouths. Also known as petroleum or crude oil. Also called an autotroph. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a year cycle. Seaweed can be composed of brown, green, or red algae, as well as "blue-green algae," which is actually bacteria. The upper zone of the ocean. This zone goes down to about meters feet. Also called the photic, euphotic, or epipelagic zone.

Also called lithospheric plate. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.

The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing. Caryl-Sue, National Geographic Society.Man has been searching for wonders that lay on the ocean floor for centuries. There are many amazing and fun facts about the ocean floor you may not know. Alexandria, the grand Egyptian civilization made of marble, founded by Alexander the Great, lies not too far beneath the surface of the water only a few blocks from Alexandra Harbor.

Studies such as this will hopefully help people learn how to protect their modern low lying cities such as Venice and New Orleans. According to the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, University of California, Santa Cruz researchers discovered a complex biological community living underneath porous basalt rocks of the ocean floor.

These unique microbes do not require the sun to maintain their energy. Their energy comes from a chemical reaction called chemosynthesis instead of sunlight.

ocean floor facts

This discovery not only opens the doors to a whole new way of thinking for microbiologists, but for astrobiologists as well. The discovery of this life form is causing scientists to rethink where else they might find life in the solar system. They would be mistaken. Mauna Kea in Hawaii is over six miles high from its base on the ocean floor to its peak approximately 2 miles above the water.

Scientists now have the advantage of harnessing technology and using specially designed robots to scour the ocean floor and explore shipwrecks. Before these autonomous remote-controlled robots were created, many shipwrecks were left unexplored and undiscovered because human divers simply cannot dive that deep. Deanne Whitmore has been writing child development and education articles since Many of these articles have been published in newsletters through the Oregon Child Care Resource and Referral agency.

About the Author. Photo Credits. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.We know very little about the deep ocean floor and the life it holds due to the depth and the difficulties this creates for scientists. In fact, it has been said that we know more about the surface of the moon than about the deeper ocean trenches. Here are 15 crazy facts about the ocean floor.

Greentumble was founded in the summer of by us, Sara and Ovi. We are a couple of environmentalists who seek inspiration for life in simple values based on our love for nature. Our goal is to inspire people to change their attitudes and behaviors toward a more sustainable life. Read more about us. While heavy machinery keeps spraying monocrops with pesticides and fertilizersmillions of family farmers are applying agroecological approaches to redress those impacts and revive rural areas.

What is the key to their success? Greentumble Biodiversity June 22, The average depth of the ocean is around feet, which is equal to the statue of liberty stacked one top of itself forty-seven times[sc:1]. About Greentumble Greentumble was founded in the summer of by us, Sara and Ovi.The youngest crust of the ocean floor can be found near the seafloor spreading centers or mid-ocean ridges. As the plates split apart, magma rises from below the Earth's surface to fill in the empty void.

The magma hardens and crystallizes as it latches onto the moving plate and continues to cool over millions of years as it moves farther away from the divergent boundary.

Most MYSTERIOUS Ocean Facts!

Like any rock, the plates of basaltic composition become less thick and denser as they cool. When an old, cold and dense oceanic plate comes into contact with a thick, buoyant continental crust or younger and thus warmer and thicker oceanic crust, it will always subduct. In essence, oceanic plates are more susceptible to subduction as they get older.

Because of this correlation between age and subduction potential, very little ocean floor is older than million years and almost none of it is older than million years. Therefore, seafloor dating isn't that useful for studying plate motions beyond the Cretaceous.

For that, geologists date and study continental crust. The lone outlier the bright splash of purple that you see north of Africa to all of this is the Mediterranean Sea. At million years, it still pales in comparison to the four-billion-year-old rock that can be found on the continental crust. The ocean floor is a mysterious place that marine geologists and oceanographers have struggled to fully grasp.

In fact, scientists have mapped more of the surface of the Moon, Mars, and Venus than the surface of our ocean. You may have heard this fact before, and while true, there is a logical explanation as to why.

Seafloor mapping, in its earliest, most primitive form, consisted of lowering weighted lines and measuring how far the sunk. This was done mostly to determine near-shore hazards for navigation. The development of sonar in the early 20th century allowed scientists to get a clearer picture of seafloor topography. It didn't provide dates or chemical analyses of the ocean floor, but it did uncover long oceanic ridges, steep canyons and many other landforms that are indicators of plate tectonics.

Every so often it has occurred over times over the past million yearsthe poles will suddenly switch. As the magma and lava cool at seafloor spreading centers, whatever magnetic field is present get ingrained into the rock. The ocean plates spread and grow in opposite directions, so rocks that are equidistance from the center have the same magnetic polarity and age.

That is, until they get subducted and recycled under less-dense oceanic or continental crust. Deep ocean drilling and radiometric dating in the late s gave an accurate stratigraphy and precise date of the ocean floor.

From studying the oxygen isotopes of the shells of microfossils in these cores, scientists were able to begin studying the Earth's past climates in a study known as paleoclimatology.

Share Flipboard Email. Brooks Mitchell. Science Expert. Brooks Mitchell is an earth science educator and geologist who is currently the Education Coordinator for the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.


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