Saponification pdf

As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Already registered? Log in here for access. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. Should I make it in liquid form or as a hand bar?

Does it need to be extra moisturizing? What intensity of creaminess should the soap contain? These are just a few questions that come to mind when thinking about how useful the saponification process is for making soap. Now, I know you may be thinking, 'soap,' as in a Dove bar or a fancy artisan hand soap.

Yes, you are thinking along the right lines! This reaction can be used to make soap products ranging from liquid soap to a nice soap bar. But, what is saponification anyway? Great question! Saponification is an organic chemical reaction that utilizes an alkali to cleave an ester into a carboxylic acid and alcohol.

As we will see shortly, the primary use for this reaction is during the production of soap products. The terms ester, carboxylic acid, and alcohol are functional groups. A functional group is simply a group of molecules or atoms that we can easily identify in a compound. Unfortunately, our friend alkali does not belong to this club.

Rather, an alkali is a fancy term for a base that dissolves in solution, producing hydroxide OH ions. Given what we know about the background of saponification, let's discuss the reaction and mechanism in greater detail. The general saponification reaction is shown on screen here. As you can see, saponification involves two major players: ester and alkali. Note that one of the products is a carboxylate ion. This is simply a carboxylic acid that carries a negative charge once its proton is removed.

Use this ion as an ID marker to help you decide whether or not you are dealing with a saponification reaction. If we look at the mechanism, or instruction guide for this reaction, we will see there is a series of steps that must be followed. Those steps, provided with illustrations, are shown here:. Step 1: The hydroxide ion from the alkali molecule swoops in and performs a nucleophilic attack on the ester or fatty molecule. Don't be alarmed by the word nucleophile.

saponification pdf

It simply refers to a molecule that will form a chemical bond due to its attraction to electrons in a different atom or molecule. Step 2: The OR group becomes a leaving groupfollowing Step 1.

OR refers to the oxygen atom bonded to R, which is simply a placeholder for any molecule or atom. Desperately wanting to leave, the OR group departs, causing a double bond to form.

This creates a carbonyl group. This new product may look familiar, as it is a carboxylic acid functional group. Step 3: Not able to leave alone, the OR group plucks the proton H from carboxylic acid. This process of removing a proton from a molecule is called deprotonation. Once deprotonated, the final products, carboxylate and alcohol, are formed.Saponification yielded fatty acids for soap manufacture and fatty alcohols for cosmetics and detergents.

saponification pdf

The mass saponifies in the kettle and is poured from there into frames, where it solidifies. Because these methods are technically simple and because they require very little investment for machinery, they are ideal for small factories.

Soap is a mixture of salts of long-chain fatty acids. Whether hydrolyzed with an acid or a base, the products…. Alkaline hydrolysis, or saponification, of fats yields soaps, which are the sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids; pure stearic acid is obtained with difficulty from such a mixture by crystallization, vacuum distillation, or chromatography of the acids or suitable derivatives.

The pure acid undergoes chemical reactions typical…. Saponification chemical reaction. Learn about this topic in these articles: Assorted References processing of sperm oil In sperm oil Saponification yielded fatty acids for soap manufacture and fatty alcohols for cosmetics and detergents. Read More production of soap and detergent.Add saponification to one of your lists below, or create a new one.

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saponification pdf

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Your feedback will be reviewed. Examples of saponification. The three main processes involved in the scouring are saponificationemulsification and detergency.

From Wikipedia. At this time, it is safe to use the soap, since saponification is in essence complete. These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. The saponification value for a specific fat will vary by season and by specimen species.

Saponification in oil paintings was first described in The saponification value must be converted into an equivalent sodium hydroxide value for use in cold process soapmaking.In simple terms, saponification is the name for a chemical reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt. How exactly does this happen? In order to understand it, you must consider the chemical makeup of the acid and base being used in the reaction.

For the most part, people use lye one sodium ion and one hydroxide ion as their base. You will notice that the sodium ion does not take part in the reaction at all. For this reason, other bases like potassium hydroxide can be used as well because it too is made up of one hydroxide ion.

Potassium hydroxide is more prominently used for liquid soap making. There are many different types of acids that will react with your base and saponify.

Each acid has a unique combination of triglycerides compounds made of three fatty acids, attached to a single molecule of glycerol which combines with the base lye differently. The amount of base needed to react with the acid will vary depending on the chemical makeup of the acid.

As you combine, and stir the carefully measured acid and base together, they start to react. The triglycerides within the acid release the single glycerol molecule which turns into skin nourishing glycerin allowing the fatty acids to combine with the hydroxide ions within the base, forming soap. Two reactions occur.

The first reaction is glycerol turning into beneficial glycerin, and the second reaction is the acid and the base combining to form a salt which is your soap.

Most Recent Posts Pasteurizing raw milk How to start a soap business and other adventures in goating For the love of goats Introduction: Farm and their journey to goats Go get your goat! Saponification Explained In simple terms, saponification is the name for a chemical reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt. Website Design by Web Considerations.Saponification is a process by which triglycerides are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide lye to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt called "soap.

When sodium hydroxide is used, a hard soap is produced. Using potassium hydroxide results in a soft soap. Lipids that contain fatty acid ester linkages can undergo hydrolysis. This reaction is catalyzed by a strong acid or base. Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of the fatty acid esters. The mechanism of saponification is:. The chemical reaction between any fat and sodium hydroxide is a saponification reaction. While the one-step triglyceride reaction with lye is most frequently used, there is also a two-step saponification reaction.

In the two-step reaction, steam hydrolysis of the triglyceride yields carboxylic acid rather than its salt and glycerol. In the second step of the process, alkali neutralizes the fatty acid to produce soap. The two-step process is slower, but the advantage of the process is that it allows for purification of the fatty acids and thus produces a higher quality soap.

The reactions sometimes damage oil paintings when heavy metals used in pigments react with free fatty acids the "oil" in oil paintforming soap. The reaction starts in the deep layers of a painting and works its way toward the surface. At present, there is no way to stop the process or identify what causes it to occur. The only effective restoration method is retouching.

What is Saponification in Soap-Making?

Wet chemical fire extinguishers use saponification to convert burning oils and fats into non-combustible soap. The chemical reaction further inhibits the fire because it is endothermic, absorbing heat from its surroundings and lowering the temperature of the flames. While sodium hydroxide hard soap and potassium hydroxide soft soap are used for everyday cleaning, there are soaps made using other metal hydroxides. Lithium soaps are used as lubricating greases.

There are also "complex soaps" consisting of a mixture of metallic soaps.Natural soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids, originally made by boiling lard or other animal fat together with lye or potash potassium hydroxide.

Hydrolysis of the fats and oils occurs, yielding glycerol and crude soap. In the industrial manufacture of soap, tallow fat from animals such as cattle and sheep or vegetable fat is heated with sodium hydroxide.

Once the saponification reaction is complete, sodium chloride is added to precipitate the soap. The water layer is drawn off the top of the mixture and the glycerol is recovered using vacuum distillation. The crude soap obtained from the saponification reaction contains sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and glycerol.

These impurities are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and re-precipitating the soap with salt. After the purification process is repeated several times, the soap may be used as an inexpensive industrial cleanser. Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. Other treatments may result in laundry, cosmetic, liquid, and other soaps. Hard soaps are especially good cleansers in hard water that contains magnesium, chloride, and calcium ions.

In addition to being softer, this type of soap has a lower melting point. Most early soaps were made using potassium hydroxide obtained from wood ash and animal fats. Modern soft soaps are made using vegetable oils and other polyunsaturated triglycerides.

Saponification: Definition, Process & Reaction

These soaps are characterized by weaker intermolecular forces between the salts. They readily dissolve, yet also tend not to last as long.

Lithium soap is used as a lubricating grease. Sometimes complex soaps are made using lithium soap and also calcium soap. Sometimes the saponification reaction occurs unintentionally.

Oil paint came into use because it withstood the test of time. Yet, over time the saponification reaction has led to damage of many but not all oil paintings made in the fifteenth through twentieth centuries. The reaction occurs when heavy metal salts, such as those in red lead, zinc white, and lead white, react with the fatty acids in the oil.

The metal soaps produced by the reaction tend to migrate toward the surface of the painting, causing the surface to deform and producing a chalky discoloration called "bloom" or "efflorescence. The only effective restoration method is retouching. Long chain fatty acids have a low saponification value because they contain fewer carboxylic acid functional groups per molecule than short chain fatty acids.

saponification pdf

The sap value is calculated for potassium hydroxide, so for soap made using sodium hydroxide, its value must be divided by 1. Some oils, fats, and waxes are deemed to be unsaponifiable. These compounds fail to form soap when mixed with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.Soaps are carboxylate salts with very long hydrocarbon chains.

Soap can be made from the base hydrolysis of a fat or an oil. This hydrolysis is called saponification, and the reaction has been known for centuries. Traditionally, soaps were made from animal fat and lye NaOH. Lye was traditionally made by pouring water through wood ashes. An example of a saponification reaction is shown below. As you may remember, fats and oils are triesters of glycerol and three fatty acids.

Esters can be hydrolyzed to their alcohol and carboxylic acid components in the presence of acid or base. Fats, oils, and fatty acids are insoluble in water because their hydrophobic tails are so long. If a base is used for hydrolysis, the fatty acids produced are deprotonated and are present as the corresponding carboxylate salts.

Because these product carboxylate salts are charged, they are much more soluble in water than the corresponding uncharged fatty acids.

Since the carboxylate salts also each have a long nonpolar tail, they are also compatible with nonpolar greases and oils. Soap can emulsify fats and oils by forming micelles around oil droplets. The soap molecules surround an oil droplet so that their nonpolar tails are embedded in the oil and their charged head groups are on the exterior of the droplets, facing the water.

If the oil droplets are small enough and if there are enough soap molecules to surround them, the oil droplets become dispersed in the water and can then easily be washed away. Therefore, using lots of soap, hot water, and agitation can help clean greasy dishes.

Hot water can melt solid fats, and agitation can help break up the fats and oils into smaller droplets.

Base Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis (Saponification)

Using lots of soap makes it more likely that there will be enough soap molecules to surround and emulsify all of the fat droplets. These ions form precipitates with soap molecules, and this precipitate is often seen as a gray line on a bathtub or sink and is often called soap scum. Since soap forms a precipitate with these ions, it means that many of the soap molecules are no longer present in the solution.

Therefore, soap will form fewer Soft water is water that contains very few or no ions that precipitate with soap.

Soap will therefore be much more effective in soft water than in hard water. Detergents are similar to soaps in that they have a charged head group and a long nonpolar tail group, but they are not prepared from natural fats or oils. Detergents are useful because they do not form precipitates with magnesium or calcium ions, which means that they work in both soft and hard water. After detergents started being widely used, it was discovered that they were not broken down in sewage treatment plants.

Many streams and lakes became contaminated with detergents and large amounts of foam appeared in natural waters. Biodegradable detergents were then developed. Shown below is an example of a biodegradable detergent, sodium laurylbenzenesulfonate. Sodium Laurylbenzenesulfonate a biodegradable detergent Many commercial detergents also contain phosphate compounds. This can be a problem, because phosphate is a nutrient for plants.


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